The pipe Bender is bent as the sheet is bent. In the case of pure bending, the outer diameter is D, the pipe with a wall thickness of t is bent by the action of the Force moment M, the outer wall of the neutral layer is σ1 by tensile stress, the wall of the tube is thinned, and the wall of the inner tube of the neutral layer is σ1 by tensile stress and the wall of the tube becomes thicker.
And the shape of the cross-section due to the effect of the resultant force F1 and F2 from circular to approximate oval, when the deformation is too large, the outer wall will produce cracks, the inner wall will wrinkle. The degree of deformation of the tube depends on the relative bending radius r/d and the relative thickness t/d the size of the numerical value, r/d and t/d values, the greater the degree of deformation. In order to ensure the quality of the tube forming, the degree of deformation must be controlled within the permissible range, the bending limit of the pipe depends not only on the mechanical properties and bending method of the material, but also on the use requirements of the pipe fittings.
The forming limits of the tubing should contain the following elements:
1) The maximum elongation deformation in the outer tensile deformation zone of the neutral layer does not exceed the plastic allowable value of the material, resulting in rupture;
2) in the inner compression deformation zone of the neutral layer, the thin-walled structural parts subjected to tangential compressive stress are not more wrinkled than the instability;
3) If the fitting has the requirement of ovality, control its cross section to produce distortion;
4) control the forming limit of the wall thickness thinning if the fitting has the strength requirement to withstand the internal pressure.
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